Biology question answers: CSIR ICMR GATE study materials

1. Charles Darwin
a. was the first to propose that evolution occurs.
b. was the first to put together substantial evidence in favor of evolution.
c. put forward the idea of natural selection.
d. did both band c.
e. did all of the above.

2. Which of the following would necessarily violate the second law of thermodynamics without necessarily violating the first law?
a. Matter is created out of nothing.
b. Chemical energy increases while electrical energy decreases, and a little heat isgenerated.
c. A container is initially at uniform temperature throughout, but one-half becomes hotter and the other cooler, with no other change occurring.
d. A rock rolls down a hill.
e. All of the above satisfy the requirements.

3. In the light reactions of photosynthesis,
a. primarily green light is absorbed by chloroplasts.
b. ATP is formed.
c. NADPH is formed.
d. carbon is fixed into organic compounds.
e. both band c are correct.

4. Comparing Krebs and Calvin cycles,

a. both involve the generation of carbon dioxide.
b. both involve the net production of organic molecules from carbon dioxide.
c. both generate ATP.
d. both initially begin with acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA.
e. none of the above are correct.

5. Transcription in eukaryotic cells
a. requires RNA polymerase enzymes.
b. can produce RNA molecules that contain introns and exons.
c. can involve enhancer sequences.
d. can involve transcription factors.
e. involves all of the above.

6. A molecule with the molecular formula CgH 70 2N is most likely to be

a. a lipid.
b. a sugar.
c. an amino acid.
d. a steroid hormone.
e. DNA.

7. A membrane separates two solutions. Solution 1 contains 0.5 molar NaCl, and solution 2 contains 1 molar NaCl. The membrane is permeable only to Na+, not Cl-. After time has elapsed,
a. both solutions will contain the same amount of sodium, but there will be less chloride in solution 1.
b. a little net movement of sodium from solution 2 to solution 1 will have occurred.
c. solution 1 will have a positive charge relative to solution 2.
d. both a and c are correct.
e. both band c are correct.

8. A major role of the Golgi apparatus is
a. to sort and package membrane-bound materials.
b. to synthesize membrane proteins and lipids.
c. to make ribosomes.
d. to digest macromolecules.
e. none of the above.

9. Chloroplasts and mitochondria
a. probably arose from prokaryotic cells that invaded eukaryotic cells.
b. contain DNA.
c. are found in plant cells.
d. All of the above are correct.

10. How many ATP molecules are made from each glucose molecule during fermentation?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
e. About 36

1. d 2. c 3. e 4. e 5. e 6. c 7. e 8. a 9. d 10. b