1). A rain shadow results in
a). extremely wet conditions due to loss of moisture from winds rising over a mountain range.
b). dry air moving toward the poles that cools and sinks in regions 15° to 30° north/south latitude.
c). global polar regions that rarely receive moisture from the warmer, tropical regions, and are therefore dryer.
d). desert conditions on the down-wind side of a mountain due to increased moisture-holding capacity of the winds coming from the seas.
2). What two factors are most important in biome distribution?
a). temperature and latitude
b). rainfall and temperature
c). latitude and rainfall
d). temperature and soil type
3). Savannas are best described as areas with
a). extremely dry conditions and sparse vegetation.
b). cold, dry conditions with herbs and few trees.
c). warm summers, cool winters, and abundant rainfall which promotes tree growth.
d). seasonal rainfall, few trees, and abundant grasses.
4). The cacti that are found in the deserts of North and South America look very much like the euphorbs that are found in the deserts of Africa. However, these plants are not closely related. The similarities in these plants are due to
a). convergent evolution as a result of similar environmental pressures.
b). artificial selection for these similar traits.
c). differences in rainfall between the two deserts.
d). differences in pollinator species in the two deserts.
5). Which of the following is not a result of an El Niño event?
a). The trade winds relax in the central and western Pacific.
b). The sea surface is about a meter higher at the Philippines than at Ecuador.
c). A rise in sea surface temperature and a decline in primary productivity adversely affect fisheries in Ecuador and Peru.
d). Flooding and strong winter storms occur in California.
6). The neritic zone is best described as the
a). area of water above the ocean floor where a diversity of plankton species are concentrated.
b). ocean floor that is made up of mud and other fine particles that have settled from the water.
c). area less than 300 meters below the surface of the oceans along the coasts of continents and islands.
d). part of the ocean floor that drops to depths where light does not penetrate.
7). The limnetic zone of a lake is best described as the
a). shallow area along the shore.
b). area below the limits where light can penetrate.
c). zone where photosynthesis cannot occur.
d). well-illuminated surface waters away from the shore.
8). In temperate regions, lakes are thermally stratified, with warm waters at the top and cooler waters at the bottom during the summer. The region of abrupt change between these layers is known as the
d). fall overturn.
9). Oligotrophic lakes can be turned into eutrophic lakes as a result of human activities such as
a). overfishing of sensitive species, which disrupts fish communities.
b). introducing nutrients into the water, which stimulates plant and algal growth.
c). disrupting terrestrial vegetation near the shore, which causes soil to run into the lake.
d). spraying pesticides into the water to control aquatic insect populations.
10). The loss of the ozone layer has serious implications for the quality of the environment because
a). ozone (O3) protects organisms from ultraviolet radiation that can cause cancer.
b). a depleted ozone layer causes rainwater to have a lower pH that kills plant life.
c). loss of the ozone layer causes the sun’s rays to get trapped in the atmosphere and increase global temperatures.
d). a depleted ozone layer can interact with toxic chemicals to increase their effect on organismal health.