Here is the list of well known Indian scientists and a short notes about them
Aryabhatta: He lived between 476 and 520 A.D. He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. His contributions include about the movement of earth around the Sun, determination of various physical parameters of various celestial bodies, such as diameter of Earth and Moon. He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero. The first Indian satellite was named after him.
Bhagavantam: His contribution to radio astronomy and cosmic rays in noteworthy. An associate of Sir C.V.Raman, Dr.S.Bhagavantam was scientific adviser in the Ministry of Defence and Director General of Defence Research Development Organisation.
Bhaskaracharya: Born in 1114 A.D., bhaskaracharya was a great Hindu mathematician and Astronomer. His work 'Sidhanta Siromain' consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a foresight on the modern theory of conventions.
S.S. Bhatnagar: A great Indian Scientist who lived between 1895 and 1955. He was the first Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Under his directorship, many research laboratories were established throughout India.
J.C.Bose: He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. He founded Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. He invented Crescograph and lived between 1858 and 1937.
S.N. Bose: He became well-known when he expounded the Bose Einstein theory which deals with the detection of a group of nuclear particles - named after him 'Boson'. His contribution to Planck's Law is laudable. He died in 1974.
Dr. S.Chandrasekhar: An Indian-born American, who won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. He is an Astrophysicist. His theory of Stellar Evolution - the birth and death of stars is 35 years old. His first discovery was laughed at. After three decades, it was recognised and today he is a Nobel Laureate. According to his theory, the old stars just collapse and disappear in the light of denser stars of low light popularly called Chandrasekhar Limit.
Charaka: He lived between 80 and 180 A.D. He was a court physician of King Kanishka. His writings on Hindu Medicine are invaluable
Dhanvantri: He was a great physician during the period of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. His period was between 375 and 413 A.D.
Hargobind Khorana: He created an artificial gene and deciphered genetic code. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968.
Homi J.Bhaba: He largely contributed to the development of Atomic Physics and he was primarily responsible for setting up of Nuclear reactors in India. He published important papers on Quantum Theory, Cosmic Rays, Structure of atom, etc. He was the first Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission. He died in a plane crash in 1966 over Alps.
Joshi: Prof. S.S.Joshi's works on physical and chemical reaction under electrical discharge on active nitrogen, colloids, hydrogen peroxide are noteworthy
Nagarjuna: A great Buddhist Philosopher and Chemist. He mentioned about crecibles, sublimation, colouring process etc. His works are still available in China and Tibet. His theory on extraction of copper and metallic oxides are mention-worthy.
Nag Chowdhury B.D: An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known all over the world.
Narlikar: J.V.Narlikar was the co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar theory of continuous creation which supplies missing links in Einstein's theory of Relativity. Hoyle and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsions.
Raja Ramanna: A great nuclear scientist, who was instrumental to stage India's first Nuclear explosion at Pokharan range in 1974.
Sir C.V. Raman: First Indian Scientist to receive Nobel prize for physics in 1929 for his invention 'Raman Effect'. His study of crystal structure is of unique importance. He founded Raman Research Institute at Bangalore.
Sir C.P.Roy: Author of 'Hindu Chemistry'. He founded Indian Chemical Society and Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. He has done good work on nitrous acid and its salts. He lived between 1861- 1944 AD.
Prof. V.Ramachandra Rao: Direction of Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) at Peenya near Bangalore
Saha Dr.Maghnad: Late Palit Prof.of Physics, University College of Scientific and Technology, Calcutta University well-known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical physics. He lived from 1893 to 1956.
Srinivas Ramanujam: A mathematical wizard, contributed much to number theory, theory of partitions and theory of continuous fractions. He lived between 1887 to 1920 AD. His birth centenary was celebrated in 1987.
Satish Dhavan: He was chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation. He was instrumental to take India into space age by launching Aryabhatta in 1975.
Susruta: A fourth century Hindu Surgeon and Physician. He had written an important book on medicine and on medical properties of garlic.
Varahamihira: An Indian astronomer and astrologer of 6th Century A.D. He was a mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems of Vikramaditya.